Episode 20: Gender Differences in PT, Part 1 [Marie Johanson]

Waves returns with a new series discussing some of the differences, discrepancies, and disparities among genders in the physical therapy profession. We begin with a conversation with Dr. Marie Johanson, interim director of the Division of Physical Therapy at Emory University in Atlanta, GA, talking about her 2007 research article entitled “Sex differences in career expectations of physical therapist students.

Music by Mark Joesting and Andy Wicks.

Episode 19: PT and COVID-19, Part 5 [Round Table, Part 2]

We conclude our series on physical therapists on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic with the second half of our round table discussion featuring Drs. Evan Haezebrouck, Stephanie Kostsuca, and Courtney Witczak.

We talk about the benefit that PTs had in advocating for early mobility of patients that would have previously been considered “too sick for rehab,” the many “non-clinical” roles that PTs took on during the pandemic, and some personal notes about how the pandemic affected us. We hope you enjoy the discussion.

Episode 18: PT and COVID-19, Part 4 [Round Table, Part 1]

After hearing some individual stories of physical therapists on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic (recorded in November 2020), we bring three clinicians together to hear how things have changed with the second surge and new developments with vaccinations.

Our guests are Drs. Evan Haezebrouck, Stephanie Kostsuca, and Courtney Witczak. Drs. Haezebrouck and Kostsuca are board certified cardiovascular and pulmonary clinical specialists. Dr. Witczak is a board certified geriatric clinical specialist.

This episode is part one of our discussion. Stay tuned for the conclusion in our next episode.

Episode 17: PT and COVID-19, Part 3 [Stephanie Kostsuca]

The third part of our series on PTs working on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic continues with an interview with Dr. Stephanie Kostsuca, a physical therapist and faculty member in the cardiovascular and pulmonary residency program at the VA healthcare system in Ann Arbor, MI.

Music in this episode by Mark Joesting and Andy Wicks.

Episode 16: PT and COVID-19, Part 2 [Evan Haezebrouck]

We continue our series of stories featuring physical therapists working on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic. Today we hear from Dr. Evan Haezebrouck, a PT at University of Michigan Hospital in Ann Arbor. He tells about the mental and emotional toll that this disease caused on the health care professionals he works with, and how resilient his coworkers are.

Episode 15: State of the State 2020 [Mike Shoemaker]

To recap the tumultuous 2020, and to commemorate the end of Dr. Mike Shoemaker’s term as president of APTA Michigan, we sit down with him to hear about some of the important issues covered in the last twelve months, as well as some of his favorite highlights and what is next.

Dr. Shoemaker is a physical therapist and associate professor at Grand Valley State University, and president emeritus of APTA Michigan.

Episode 14: PT and COVID-19 [Romina Bello]

We are beginning a series highlighting the work of some physical therapists on the front lines of the COVID-19 pandemic and hearing their stories in their own words.

Dr. Romina Bello is a physical therapist and the early rehab coordinator at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit. She tells us how things changed at the start of the pandemic, and what valuable lessons were learned. 

Music in this episode is by Mark JoestingSergey Cheremisinov, and Pictures of the Floating World.

Episode 13: Geriatrics, Part 3 [Depression and COVID-19]

We conclude our series featuring DPT students from the University of Michigan-Flint as they talk about important issues relating to geriatric physical therapy. Today’s episode features two segments talking about the effects of COVID-19 and depression in the geriatric community and how PT can positively effect patients in a post-COVID world.

A special thanks to all of the UM-Flint students and their instructor, Dr. Emily Carter, for their hard work.


  1. Guccione AA, Wong RA, Avers D. Geriatric Physical Therapy. 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby, Inc. 2012.

Berg-Weger M, Morley JE. Editorial: Loneliness and Social Isolation in Older Adults during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for Gerontological Social Work. J Nutr Health Aging. 2020;24(5):456-458. doi:10.1007/s12603-020-1366-8

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  Coronavirus disease 2019 –older adults. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html. Updated June 25, 2020. Accessed June 26, 2020.
  1. Guccione AA, Wong RA., and Avers D. Geriatric Physical Therapy (3rd ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2012. https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.libproxy.umflint.edu/lib/umichigan/reader.action?docID=1429854. Accessed June 26, 2020.  
  1. American Physical Therapy Association. PACER series: geriatric considerations: COVID-19. https://learningcenter.apta.org/Student/MyCourse.aspx?id=9f020459-b0b4-40f1-afcb-c135f45af2b8&ProgramID=dcca7f06-4cd9-4530-b9d3-4ef7d2717b5d. Published April 13, 2020. Accessed June 22, 2020. 
  1. Thomas P, Baldwin C, Bissett B, et al. Physiotherapy management for COVID-19 in the acute hospital setting: clinical practice recommendations. Aust J Physiother. April 2020;66(2):73-82. doi:10.1016/j.jphys.2020.03.011. 
  1. American Physical Therapy Association. Practice guidelines emerge for physical therapy and COVID-19 in acute hospital setting. https://www.apta.org/news/2020/03/26/practice-guidelines-emerge-for-physical-therapy-and-covid-19-in-acute-hospital-setting. Published March 26, 2020. Accessed June 30, 2020. 
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  1. World Health Organization. Dementia –facts sheet. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dementia. Published September 19, 2020. Accessed June 30, 2020.

Episode 12: Geriatrics, Part 2 [Dementia, Delirium, and Depression]

Waves continues its series highlighting work from students at University of Michigan-Flint as they research topics related to geriatric physical therapy.

This episode features Patrick Frazier, Rachel Rainko, Donovan Turchin, and Katie Persha, as they educate us on how we, as therapists, can recognize signs of delirium, dementia, and depression, and how we can provide better care to our elderly patients.

Music in this episode is by Mark Joesting and Pictures of the Floating World.

Episode 11: Geriatrics, Part 1 [Telehealth/Walking Programs/Fall Prevention]

We begin a series of episodes featuring physical therapy students from University of Michigan-Flint as they present important information on geriatric physical therapy. This episode features Diana Stanek, Elizabeth Glasco, Amy Smith, Allie Lampman, Kateri Rybicki, Kim Krokoski, Emily VanVeldhuisen, and Jamie Schaub.

Music in this episode is by Mark Joesting (www.soundcloud.com/mark-joesting), Nctrnm (https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Nctrnm), and Pictures of the Floating World (https://freemusicarchive.org/music/Pictures_of_the_Floating_World).


  1. APTA Michigan Payment resources: www.aptami.org/payment
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Keep on your feet-preventing older adult falls. cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/injury/features/older-adult-falls/index.html. Published December 19, 2019. Accessed July 1, 2020.
  3. Klenk J, Kerse N, Rapp K, et al. Physical Activity and Different Concepts of Fall Risk Estimation in Older People–Results of the ActiFE-Ulm Study. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0129098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129098.
  4. Zoom. HIPAA compliance guide. zoom.us. https://zoom.us/docs/doc/Zoom-hipaa.pdf. Published May 2020. Accessed July 1, 2020. 
  5. Hoffman NB, Prieto NM. Clinical Video Telehealth for Gait and Balance. Fed Pract. 2016;33(2):34-38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368933/. Accessed July 1, 2020. 
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The 4-Stage Balance Test Assessment. cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/steadi/pdf/STEADI-Assessment-4Stage-508.pdf. Published 2017. Accessed July 1, 2020.
  7. American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). Implementation telehealth in your practice STAT: Practical guidance from experienced telehealth PTs [Video]. www.facebook.com.   https://www.facebook.com/AmericanPhysicalTherapyAssociation/videos/2917542464968284/. Published March 30, 2020. Accessed July 1, 2020.
  8. Venkataraman K, Morgan M, Amis KA, et al. Tele-Assessment of the Berg Balance Scale: Effects of Transmission Characteristics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;98(4):659-664.e1. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2016.10.019.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevent. Stay Independent. cdc.gov.https://www.cdc.gov/steadi/pdf/STEADI-Brochure-StayIndependent-508.pdf. Published 2017. Accessed July 1, 2020. 
  10. University of North Carolina School of Medicine. The Otago exercise program. med.unc.edu. https://www.med.unc.edu/aging/cgec/exercise-program/. Accessed June 29, 2020.
  11. Kocic M, Stojanovic Z, Nikolic D, et al. The effectiveness of group Otago exercise program on physical function in nursing home residents older than 65 years: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2018;75:112-118. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2017.12.001.
  12. Bernocchi P, Giordano A, Pintavalle G, et al. Feasibility and clinical efficacy of a multidisciplinary home-telehealth program to prevent falls in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2019;20(3):340-346. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2018.09.003.
  13. Schmid AA, Van Puymbroeck M, Koceja DM. Effect of a 12-week yoga intervention on fear of falling and balance in older adults: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(4):576-583. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2009.12.018.
  14. Liu H, Frank A. Tai chi as a balance improvement exercise for older adults: a systematic review. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2010;33(3):103-109. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21155504/. Accessed July 1, 2020. 
  15. Wu G, Keyes LM. Group tele-exercise for improving balance in elders. Telemed J E Health. 2006;12(5):561-570. doi:10.1089/tmj.2006.12.561


  1. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/10000-steps-a-day-or-fewer-2019071117305
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  3. Carter, E. Aging and the Musculoskeletal System. Lecture presented: Geriatrics in Practice at the University of Michigan – Flint; May 11, 2020. 
  4. Rating of perceived exertion: Borg scales. Sralab.org. https://www.sralab.org/sites/default/files/2018-04/Rating_of_perceived_exertion_-_Borg_scale.pdf. Accessed June 29, 2020.
  5.  Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/measuring/exertion.htm. Published April 10, 2020. Accessed June 30, 2020.
  6. The Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion. The Nutrition Source. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/borg-scale/. Published September 18, 2012. Accessed June 29, 2020.
  7. Mayo Clinic. Exercise Intensity: How to Measure it. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/exercise-intensity/art-20046887. Published August 06, 2019. Accessed June 29, 2020. 
  8. American Heart Association. Target Heart Rates. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/fitness/fitness-basics/target-heart-rates. Published January 04, 2015. Accessed June 29, 2002. 
  9. Mayo Clinic. How to Take your Pulse. https://www.mayoclinic.org/how-to-take-pulse/art-20482581. Published April 07, 2020. Accessed June 29, 2020.


  1. Keep on Your Feet-Preventing Older Adult Falls. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/injury/features/older-adult-falls/index.html. Published December 19, 2019. Accessed July 1, 2020.
  2. Important Facts about Falls. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html. Published 2017. Accessed June 30, 2020.
  3. Huntzinger A. AGS Releases Guideline for Prevention of Falls in Older Persons. American Family Physician. 2010;82:81-82
  4. Preventing Falls: A Guide to Implementing Effective Community-Based Fall Prevention Programs. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/pdf/falls/FallPreventionGuide-2015-a.pdf. Published 2015. Accessed June 30, 2020.
  5. My Mobility Plan. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/pdf/older_adult_drivers/CDC-AdultMobilityTool-9.27.pdf. Accessed June 30, 2020.
  6. Hughes K, van Beurden E, Eakin EG, et al. Older persons’ perception of risk of falling: implications for fall-prevention campaigns. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(2):351-357. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.115055
  7. Sherrington C, Whitney JC, Lord SR, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Close JCT. Effective Exercise for the Prevention of Falls: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: EFFECTIVE EXERCISE FOR THE PREVENTION OF FALLS. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (JAGS). 2008;56:2234-2243.